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ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА:

МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

Разработчики: Заболотская А.Р., доцент. каф. иностр. яз. отделения романо-германской филологии ИФИ КФУ,

Свирина Л.О доцент каф. иностр. яз. отделения романо-германской филологии ИФИ КФУ,

Сигал Н.Г. ст.преп. каф. иностр. яз. отделения романо-германской филологии ИФИ КФУ

PART I.

UNIT I. CAN, COULD, BE ABLE TO

  1. CAN

    1. We use CAN :

to say that something is possible or that somebody has the ability to do something - CAN + INDEFINITE INFINITIVE (can do/ can see):

All types of sentences:


  • We can see the lake from our bedroom window.

  • I’m afraid I can’t come to the party on Friday.

  • He can swim / Can he swim ? / He can’t swim .

to talk about general ability in the present


  • I can’t always say what I think.

  • I can usually get what I want.




    1. We use CAN when we are talking about:

Permission

CAN + INDEFINITE INFINITIVE:

  • in the affirmative sentences:

  • in the interrogative sentences:

  • in the negative sentences:

CAN/BE ALLOWED TO (to talk about the future or present)

COULD (to talk about the past – used for repeated actions)

WAS/WERE ALLOWED TO (to talk about the past – used for repeated or single actions)

COULDN’T/WASN’T ALLOWED TO (in negations or questions for either repeated or single actions)

  • You can take it (permission)

  • Can (could) I take it? (request)

  • You can’t take it (prohibition)



  • Pupils are allowed to/can use the school swimming pool free of charge.

  • She was always allowed to/could always play with her friends after school. (repeated action)

  • The reporter was allowed to (not could) take a photo of the pop singer. (single action)

  • The foreigner wasn’t allowed to/couldn’t enter the country without a visa. (single action)

^ Uncertainty / Doubt – in general questions only (“Неужели?”)

CAN + INDEFINITE INFINITIVE CAN + CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE:
CAN + PERFECT INFINITIVE

CAN + PERFECT CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE (past time context):

NOTE COULD in this case implies more uncertainty.

  • Can it be so late?

  • Can he be telling lies?

  • ‘Can she still be working?’ – ‘Yes, she is.’


• Can he have said it?

• Can she have been waiting so long?





    1. We use CAN when we are talking about:

Improbability – in negative sentences only (“Вряд ли, не может быть”)

CAN + INDEFINITE INFINITIVE CAN + CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE

CAN + PERFECT INFINITIVE or CAN + PERFECT CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE (past time context)



  • It can’t be true.

  • He can’t be telling lies.

  • He can’t have said it.

  • She can’t have been waiting long.







    1. CAN is also used to refer to an ability to do something specific at a time in the future:

  • I can come and see you next week.

    1. We use CAN + be + adjective or noun to talk about possibility:

  • The sea can be quite warm in September./ The sea is sometimes quite warm in September.

  • She can be very charming when she wants to be.

  1. COULD

  • 2.1.We use COULD:

to talk about general ability in the past:

  • When I was young I could usually get when I wanted. I couldn’t laugh at myself.

  • I could swim when I was four.

to say that somebody had the general ability or permission to do something.

COULD makes the statement less categorical:

  • My grandmother could speak five languages.

  • We were completely free. We could do what we (wanted). (= we were allowed to do…)





2.2. Sometimes we use COULD in the past of CAN, especially with:

See, hear, smell, taste, feel, remember, understand

  • When we went into the house, we could smell burning.

  • She spoke in a very low voice, but I could understand what she said.

2.3. COULD in present time context is used to express possibility and suggestion:

  • We could go out tonight. (могли бы)

  • The phone is ringing. It could (might) be Tom. (Not! It can be Tom)

2.4. COULD does not mean “смог”. If we are talking about what happened in particular situation , we use was/were able to … or managed to … (not could):

  • He was able (managed) to swim across the river.

  • They didn’t want to come with us at first but we managed to persuade them.

Or

  • … we were able to persuade them. ( but not ‘could persuade)

Compare:

Jack was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anybody. (=he had the general ability to beat anybody)

! BUT

Jack and Alf had a game of tennis yesterday. Alf played very well, but in the end Jack managed to beat him. Or … was able to beat him. (=he managed to beat him in this particular game)

The negative COULDN’T (COULD NOT) is possible in all situations:

  • I couldn’t swim.

  • We tried hard but we couldn’t persuade them to come with us.

  • Alf played well but he couldn’t beat Jack.

  • He couldn’t swim across the river.

  1. BE ABLE TO

    1. CAN and COULD refer to the ability to do something, but not to the doing of it. CAN or BE ABLE (TO) to talk about ability:

  • Will you be able to/ Can you come on Saturday?

  • He had a motorbike accident at the age of eighteen and after that he wasn’t able to/couldn’t walk.

    1. BE ABLE TO … to talk about ability + achievement of the action:

  • Jane gave me a lift home so I was able to stay at the party till late.

  • We use will be able to talk about skills that will be acquired in the future:

  • Will you be able to read textbooks in German when you’ve finished this course?

    1. We use BE ABLE TO for different grammatical forms that are not possible with CAN:

  • He won’t be able to swim tomorrow.

  • Has he been able to calm down?

  • She’ll be able to relax with them, won’t she?

    1. BE ABLE TO … is possible instead of CAN, but can is more usual:

  • Are you able to speak any foreign languages?

! BUT CAN has only two forms < can (present) and could (past)>. So sometimes it is necessary to use TO BE ABLE TO:

! BUT I can’t sleep. I haven’t been able to sleep recently. (can has no present perfect)

  • Tom can come tomorrow.

! BUT Tom might be able to come tomorrow. (can has no infinitive)

  1. CAN, COULD, COULD HAVE

We use CAN, COULD and could have in conditional sentences. We also use them in sentences with an implied condition:

  • I can help you if you want me to.

  • I could do it if I had the time.

  • You could do that job easily. (if you had that job)

  • I couldn’t have done it if I hadn’t had your help.

  • I could have got here earlier but I know you were waiting. (I could have got here earlier if I had known you were waiting)



UNIT II. MAY/ MIGHT

MIGHT/MAY + INFINITIVE (might/may go)

I/we/you/they/he/she/it

may/ might

be/go/play/come etc.




  • I haven’t decided yet where to spend my holidays. I may go to Ireland. (=perhaps I will go to Ireland)

  • Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It might rain later. (=perhaps it will rain)

^ The negative forms are may not and might not:

I/you/he/she/we/they/it

may

might

(not)

be (true/in his office etc.)

do/know/have etc.

be(doing/working/having etc.)


  • Ann may not come to the party tonight. (= perhaps she will not come)

  • There might not be a meeting on Friday because the director is ill. (= perhaps there will not be a meeting)

  • I might not go to work tomorrow. (=it is impossible that I will go)

  1. MAY

We use MAY:

To make supposition (может быть, возможно) - in the affirmative and negative sentences:


  • He may come soon. (=future action)

  • I may not have enough money. (=present time)

  • He may be ill. (=present time)



MAY + CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE:

  • He may be working. (=present time)




MAY + PERFECT INFINITIVE:

  • He may have fallen ill. (=past time)




MAY + PERFECT CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE:

  • He may have been waiting for an hour. (=the action began in the past and is continued)

  • He may not have been feeling well. (=the action began in the past and is continued)






  1. MIGHT

We use MIGHT:

- to criticize someone (compare: could have done):

-In short responses:


  • You might carry my bag.

  • He might have helped

  • ‘Are they at home now?’ ‘They might be there.’(response)




  1. MAY/MIGHT

3.1. We use MAY or MIGHT:

to say that something is a possibility: MAY/MIGHT + PRESENT INFINITIVE (perhaps; it’s possible that something will happen in the future or perhaps it is true at the moment):


  • It might be true. or It may be true. (=perhaps it is true)

  • She might know. or She may know. (=perhaps it is true)

  • It might rain tomorrow. (=perhaps it will rain tomorrow)

  • She might not like the family. (=perhaps it is true)







    1. We use MAY/Might:

Asking for permission in all types of sentences: MAY/MIGHT + INDEFINITE INFINITIVE:

  • MAY (formal)/MIGHT (formal);

  • MAY (formal; giving permission – also used in written notices or formal announcements);



  • You may come in.

  • May I come in?

  • May/Might I speak to the bank manager, please? (formal)

  • May I use your phone? Certainly you may. (formal)

  • Luggage may be left here. (written notice)




NOTE It is rarely used in the negative sentences “не смей”: You may not do it.

    1. We use MAY/MIGHT

making request

(asking someone to do something)

MAY is more respectful than can or could;

MIGHT is the most polite but the least common

  • May I have a glass of water? (=request, please)

  • Might I borrow your umbrella? (=request, please)







    1. We use MAY/MIGHT:

MAY/MIGHT + PERFECT INFINITIVE (perhaps something happened in the past)

  • She might/may have lost her job. (=perhaps she has lost her job)

  • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting.

B: She might not have known about it. (=perhaps she didn’t know about it)




  1. Sometimes COULD has a similar meaning to MAY/MIGHT:

  • ‘The phone is ringing.’ ‘It could/may/might be Tim.’

  • You could/ may/might have left your bag in the shop.

But COULDN’T (negative) is different from MAY NOT/MIGHT NOT. Compare:

  • She was too far away, so she couldn’t have seen you. (=it is possible that she saw you)

  • A: I wonder why she didn’t say hello.

B: She might not have seen you. (=perhaps she didn’t see you; perhaps she did)

  1. MIGHT as well/MAY as well

Study the example:

Helen and Clare have just missed the bus. The buses run every hour.

What shall we do? Shall we walk?

We might as well. It’s a nice day and I don’t want to wait here for an hour.

‘(We) might as well do something’ = (We) should do something because there is nothing better to do and there is no reason not to do it.

You can also say ‘may as well’.
UNIT 3. MUST

  1. We use MUST:

Obligation (real necessity) –‘надо to say that it is necessary to do something in affirmative sentences:

MUST + INDEFINITE INFINITIVE

  • I must go there. You must talk to your daughter.




  1. In interrogative sentences:

  • Must I really do it again? (А что обязательно…?)

  1. We use MUST:

    Supposition (вероятно, должно быть) to say that we feel sure something is true in affirmative sentences only.

    Present time context:

    MUST + INDERFENITE or CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE:

    Past time context:

    MUST + PERFECT INFINITIVE or PERFECT CONYINIOUS INFINITIVE:


    • Carol must get bored in her job. She does the same thing every day.

    • You have been travelling all day. You must be tired. (Travelling is tiring and you have been travelling all day, so you must be tired)

    • He must be ill. She must be working now.

    • She must have gone home. It must have been raining all night.

  2. We use MUST:

    To talk about the present or future, but not the past:
    BUT In some cases have to is used as an equivalent in the past and in the future:



    • You must go now.

    • We must go tomorrow.

    BUT

    • We mustn’t go yesterday.

    • I had to go there. You will have to talk to your daughter.

    • I had to go to work early yesterday. (‘Must’ is not possible here as it is used only in present)

  3. For the future WILL PROBABLY is used:

  • They will probably come.

  1. Emphatic Advice:

  • Really, you must go and see the film.

  1. Order:

  • You must do it at once!

  1. Prohibition ( in negative sentences):

  2. You mustn’t take the matches. (Нельзя!)


UNIT 4. HAVE TO

  1. We use HAVE TO:

When the necessity comes from outside the speaker or when others decide for him in all forms:

  • I have to lose some weight. (The doctor says so, the doctor decides for me)

  • I had to go to the hospital.

  • Have you ever had to go to hospital?

  • I might have to go to the hospital. (infinitive after might)







  1. In questions and negative sentences with have to, we normally use do/does/did:

  • What do you have to do to get a driving licence? (not ‘What have I to do?)

  • Why did you have to go to hospital?

  • Karen doesn’t have to work on Saturdays.




  1. You can use HAVE GOT TO instead of HAVE TO to express obligation.

  • I’ve got to work tomorrow. Or I have to go to work.

But there is sometimes a difference:

Have to can be used for habitual actions and single actions:

I have to get the bus into work today.

I have got to get the bus into the work every day.

Have got to can only be used for single action:

I have got to get the bus into work today.

^ I have got to get the bus into work every day.




  1. MUST and HAVE TO are often interchangeable, but there is a difference between them. Sometimes it is important:




Must is personal. We use must when we give our personal feelings.

‘You must do something’= ‘I (the speaker) say it is necessary’,

  • She is really nice person. You must meet her. (=I say it is necessary)

Must – the obligation comes from the speaker or writer of the sentence. This may be an individual or some kind of authority:

We must get up early tomorrow. We’ve got a lot of job to do. (We are imposing the obligation on ourselves.)

Have to is impersonal. We use have to for facts, not for our personal feelings.

‘You have to do something’ because of a rule or the situations:

  • You can’t turn right here. You have to turn left. (because of the traffic system)

Have to – the obligation is often external. It comes from the situation:

We have to get up early tomorrow to catch the plane. (The time of the plane is the reason for the obligation.)


NOTE: If you are not sure which to use, It is usually safer to use have to.


  1. MUSTN’T and DON’T HAVE TO are completely different:

You mustn’t do something= it is necessary that you do not do it (don’t do it):

  • I promised I would be on time. I mustn’t be late. (=I must be on time)

You don’t have to do something = you don’t need to do it (but you can if you want):

You can tell me if you want but you don’t have to tell me. (= you don’t need to tell me)


UNIT 5. NEED

  1. We use NEED:


To express the necessity:

You needn’t do something = it is not necessary that you do it, you don’t need to do it:


Instead of needn’t, you can use DON’T NEED/DOESN’T NEED TO

REMEMBER: ‘DON’T NEED TO DO’, BUT ‘NEEDN’T DO’ (without to)

  • You can come with me if you like but you needn’t come if you don’t want to. (it is not necessary for you to come)

  • We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry. (=it is not necessary to hurry)

  • We’ve got plenty of time. We don’t need to hurry.






  1. To express lack of necessity in the past: use NEEDN’T +PERFECT INFINITIVE or DIDN’T NEED TO/DIDN’T HAVE TO + INFINITIVE: There is some difference between them:

  • I needn’t have gone to the station so early. The train was nearly an hour late. (It wasn’t necessary, but didn’t realize it and so I did get there early)

  • We didn’t need to/didn’t have to get up early this morning because we had no lectures. (It wasn’t necessary and so we didn’t do it)

  • He needn’t have taken the umbrella = He took the umbrella but it was not necessary.

NOTE: WE DON’T USE NEED + PERFECT INFINITIVE IN THE POSITIVE.
UNIT 6. OUGHT TO
OUGHT TO means obligation with advisability (used in all types of sentences). The meaning is similar to should. OUGHT does not have infinitives (to ought) or participles (oughting, oughted).

  1. We use OUGH TO:

to express duty, necessity, desirability and similar ideas.

BUT Ought is not as forceful as must.

to express logical probability

OUGHT TO + INDEFINITE INFINITIVE is used for future actions:

OUGHT TO + CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE is used for present time situations:

OUGHT TO sometimes expresses supposition with strong probability:



  • You ought to attend office regularly. (Duty)

  • We ought to help the needy. (Moral obligation)

  • We ought to buy some furniture. (Necessity)




  • If he started an hour ago, he ought to be here soon (logical probability).



  • You ought to say a word.



  • You ought to be earning your living.



  • It ought to be very comfortable.




  1. OUGHT TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

OUGHT TO is used for past time situations meaning that the action was not carried out - OUGHT TO + PERFECT INFINITIVE:

  • He oughtn’t to have said it.

This structure can be used:

to talk about things which were supposed to happen but did not.

  • I ought to have written to my parents, but I forgot.

  • You ought to have invited her to your party.

to make guesses

It is ten o’clock. He ought to have reached home.







to make guesses

It is ten o’clock. He ought to have reached home.




  1. OUGHT NOT TO HAVE can be used to talk about things that happened unnecessarily.

  • We ought not to have wasted so much time over it.

  • We have done things that we ought not to have done.

  • We have left undone things that we ought to have done.



  1. OUGHT TO is rarely used in questions and negatives; should is generally used instead. Questions and negatives are made without do.

  • Ought we to help them? (NOT Do we ought to …)

  • We ought to help them, shouldn’t we? (More natural than ought not we?)

  • You ought not to go now.

  • Do you think I ought to consult a doctor? (More natural than Ought I to consult a doctor?)

  • Should we tell her? (Less formal than Ought we to tell her?)



UNIT 7. SHOULD

  1. We use SHOULD :

to give advice:

  • You should take an umbrella with you, in case it starts to rain.

  • I should answer his letter as soon as possible.

  • I think, you should go to bed. (refers the action to the future)

  • You shouldn't be sitting in the sun. (with reference to the present)

  • Не should have stayed at home, (the action was not carried out)

to refer to events that may occur by chance.


  • If I should see him, I will tell him what I think.



  1. In the negative sentences the action was carried out and it was not good.

  • You shouldn't have done it.

  1. Supposition implying near certainty:

  • The flowers should grow well here.

  1. Emotional should:

  • That it should come to this!

  1. In "WHY"- questions (“С какой стати/ чего ради?”)

  • Why should I do it?

  • How should I know?

  • Why shouldn't you invite him?

  1. After the noun reason: There is no reason why he shouldn't come.

  2. To criticize actions in the past, use SHOULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE:

  • I should have stayed at home. (=I didn’t stay at home and my behavior was wrong).

  • Should I have phoned you back?

  • They shouldn’t have been said that. (= You said that and that was the wrong thing to have said. )

  1. We often use SHOULD with I THINK / I DON’T THINK/ DO YOU THINK...?:

  • I think the government should do more to help homeless people.

  • I don’t think you should work so hard.

  • Do you think I should apply for this job?

  1. SHOULD is also used with the meaning OUGHT TO. BUT SHOULD is more frequently:

  • Should we / Ought we to tell Ann where we’re going?

  1. We sometimes use I should … (NOT I ought to) to give advice to someone else when there is an implied condition if I were you:

  2. Everything’s going to be all right. I should stop worrying about it. (if I were you)

Should (used in all kinds of sentences):
UNIT 8. WILL

We use WILL:

WILL + SIMPLE or CONTINIOUS INFINITIVE to talk about a present or future certainty:

  1. Ann will be 10 years old next month.

  2. There will be trouble if he catches you stealing his flowers.

  3. The train leaves at 9:30, so we will be home by lunchtime.

  4. We should go there, they’ll be waiting for us.

to talk about willingness :

  • I will come with you.

  • There is the doorbell. I will go.

to express a promise or a threat.


  • Will can also I will do whatever I can to help you.

  • I will teach him a lesson.

  • We will dismiss you from service.




to ask someone to do something

  • Will you lend me some money?

  • Will you give the book to John when you meet him?




to make requests and offers:

(WILL can be used as a polite way of inviting someone to do something or of offering someone something. Note that WOULD is a more polite form)

  • Will you join us for a drink?

  • Will you send me the report?



to give orders:

  • Will you be quiet?

  • If you don't behave, you will go straight to bed.




to talk about possibility


  • ‘There is the doorbell.’ ‘That will be Sita.’




  1. WON’T you is used:

to make a pressing offer:


  • You will have some coffee, won't you?




to talk about willingness:


  • The car won’t start. I wonder what’s wrong with it.

  • I’ve tried to advise her but she won’t listen.



UNIT 9. SHALL

  1. We use SHALL with the first person:

In the first person SHALL expresses simple futurity. It is used to show the strong possibility or near certainty of an action or event which is to take place in the future.

  • I think I shall send him a wire.

  • I shall be home soon.

  1. We use SHALL with the second or third person:

In the second and third persons SHALL may express a command.

  • You shall go at once. (= You are commanded to go at once.)

  • He shall carry out my instructions. (= He is commanded to carry out my instructions.)

BUT Sometimes it is used to make a promise.

  • He shall be given a present if he passes this year.

  • Shall may also express a threat.

  • You shall regret this.

  1. Questions and negatives are made without do:

  • Shall we report this to the police? (NOT Do we shall…?)

  • No, we shall not. (NOT We don't shall.)

  1. We use SHALL:

to make suggestions (Shall can be used with the first person pronouns (I or we) to make suggestions).



  • You don't look well. Shall I call the doctor?

  • It is very cold. Shall I close the window?

  • Shall I drop you at the station?




To talk about certainty (Shall can show certainty. It is used to say that something will certainly happen, or that you are determined that something will happen.



  • Don't worry. I shall be there to help you.




  • She shall clean the kitchen, no matter whether she likes it or not.






UNIT 10. WOULD

  1. We use WOULD:

to make a request or an offer or an invitation:

(It is a softer, less definite form of WILL, more polite and formal than COULD)

WOULD YOU MIND + GERUND…?

WOULD YOU MIND + IF I +VERB in the present or past…?

I WOULD LIKE (I’D LIKE) … is a polite way of saying what you want.


  • Would you mind moving a bit?

  • Would you mind sharing a room?

  • I would like to meet the manager.

  • Would you mind if I open/opened the window?

  • Would you like some tea?

  • Would you like me to help you?




to express an opinion in a more polite way without being forceful.



  • This is not what we would expect from a professional service.







  1. We use WOULD:

to talk about past habits:


  • When we were children, my brother and I would fight all the time




to talk about past events that happened often or always.


  • He would always bring us nice gifts without telling why.

  • She would always trust the wrong the person.







  1. We use WOULD:

to suggest that what happens is expected because it is typical, especially of a person's behaviour.

  • After dinner we would sit in a common room and chat for a while.

  • The old man would recline in a corner and sleep most of the time.

  • 'Ann rang to say that she was too busy to come.' 'She would - she always has an excuse.'







  1. We use WOULD:


to talk about willingness and determination
Wouldn't shows unwillingness.



  • He said he would try his best to help me. (Willingness)

  • He would bet on that horse, though I asked him not to. (Determination)

  • She would have her own way.




  • I asked him to move his car, but he said he wouldn't.

to talk about imaginary situations

(WOULD is sometimes used to refer to a situation that you can imagine happening.)

  • He said he would try his best to help me.

  • I would like to know what my duty is.

  • The doctor said he would visit the patient. I would hate to miss the show.

  • I would go myself but I am too busy.



  1. WOULD and USED TO

Both would and used to can refer to repeated actions and events in the past.

  • She would/used to always carry an umbrella.

NOTE that when we talk about past situations (not actions), we can use USED TO but we can’t use WOULD:

  • I used to have an old Rolls Royce. (NOT I would have …)

  • We used to live in a flat in the town center. (NOT We would live in a flat in the town center)

  1. WOULD RATHER

Would rather expresses choice or preference.

  • She would rather die than marry him.

  • They would rather go to jail than pay the fine.



UNIT 11. HAD BETTER

  1. HAD BETTER refers to the immediate future. It is followed by an infinitive without to. It is a strong advice. We use it to tell people what to do.

  • You had better consult a doctor.

  • You had better apologize.

  • We had better hurry up. We are already late.

  1. HAD BETTER sometimes suggests a threat and is not used in polite requests.

  • You had better tell them soon. If you don't, there will be trouble.

  • You had better mend your ways.

  1. To make negative forms, we put not between had better and infinitive.

  • You had better not irritate him.



UNIT 12. TO BE ТО

То be to is used in the present and past tenses and has the following meaning:

Prearranged necessity.

  • We are to discuss it next time.

  • I was to meet her at five.




Strict order or prohibition:


  • He says I am to leave you alone.

  • You are not to leave the room.




Something that is destined to happen:

But it wasn't to be. (суждено)


  • He was to be my teacher and friend for many years to come.




Possibility:


  • Where is he to be found? (to be to = can/may )

  • What is there to be done?

  • How are they to know?




Set phrases:

  • What am I to do?

  • Where am I to go?

  • What is to become of me?



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