Контрольные работы и рабочие программы по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальностям сдм, гсх, эуп составитель: зенина е. С




НазваниеКонтрольные работы и рабочие программы по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальностям сдм, гсх, эуп составитель: зенина е. С
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Part - time student студент - заочник, вечерник

enter an Institute - поступать в институт

QUESTIONS

1. What year student are you?

2. Where do you study?

3. When was our institute founded?

4. How many faculties are there at our institute?

5. What faculty do you study at?

6. What is your future speciality?

7. What year student are you?

8. What facilities are there at our institute?

9. Where do the graduates of the institute work?

Рабочая программа по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальности ЭУП.

1 курс

Семестр II (Зачет)

Структура и содержание дисциплины

1. Выполнить контрольную работу №2 (по вариантам)по методичке кафедры .

Выполняется в отдельной тетради, согласно установленным требованиям, в сроки определённые деканатом заочного отделения. Во время зачёта проверяется насколько успешно усвоен материал, вошедший в контрольную работу.

Для выполнения контрольной работы рекомендуется грамматический справочник учебника Л.Н. Андриановой

2. Сделать устные сообщения по темам:

1) Моя Родина. Москва.

2) Англия, Лондон.

3) США, Вашингтон.

Знать лексику. Читать, переводить темы, отвечать на вопросы.

3. Читать, переводить тексты по учебнику Л.Н.Андриановой (§5-10). Тексты стр.81, 86, 95, 101, 108, 114, 121, 125.

4. Выполнить грамматические упражнения в рабочей тетради:

упр. 3стр.79

упр. 14стр.85

упр. 8стр.98

упр. 17стр.100

упр. 18стр.113

Выполнение упражнений проверяется на зачёте.

^ УСТНЫЕ ТЕМЫ

Russia

I live in Russia. Russia is my native country. The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies one seventh of the Earth's surface. It is situated both in Europe and Asia. The total area is about 17 million square kilometres. The country is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans: the Pacific,, the Arctic and the Atlantic oceans. Our neighbours in the south are China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west we have borders with Norway, Finland, Belarus and the Ukraine. There is no country in the world like Russia, with the steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east. There is a great number of rivers in Russia. The Volga, the longest in Europe river, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers- the Ob', the Yenisey and the Lena flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific ocean. The deepest lake in the world is Baikal. The water in the lake is so clear, that you can see the stones on the bottom.

Because of the vast territory there are various types of climate in the country. The climate varies greatly in different regions.

Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.

Russia is a parliamentary republic with the strong power of the President who is the head of the state. The State Duma and the Council of Federation are the legislative branch of the government.

The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is the largest political, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.

The national banner of Russia is a tricolour with white, blue and red stripes.

WORDS

native country — Родина

to occupy — занимать

surface — поверхность

highlands — возвышенности

to flow — течь, протекать

vast — обширный

copper — медь

oil — нефть

ore — руда

legislative branch — законодательная ветвь (власти)

national banner — государственный флаг

stripes — полосы

QUESTIONS

  1. What is the area of Russian Federation?

  2. What oceans and seas is Russia washed by?

  3. What are the neighbouring countries of Russia?

  4. What are the biggest rivers in Russia?

  5. What are the natural resources of Russia?

  6. What does the national banner of Russia look like?

Moscow

Moscow, the capital of Russia, is one of the largest cities in the world. It was founded in 1147 by the prince Yuri Dolgoruky. It stands on the banks of the Moskva river. About eight million people live in the city.

Moscow is famous for its historical and architectural monuments that were built by outstanding architects. The Red Square is the central and the most beautiful square in Moscow. It is the place of parades, meetings and demonstrations. There is a Cathedral of St. Basil built in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture.

The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin. There is a wonderful architectural ensemble with 3 cathedrals, the Bell tower of Ivan the Great, palaces, fortress walls and 20 towers. The most famous of the towers is the Spasskaya Tower with a big clock. The Kremlin with golden domes and towers makes a strong impression on tourists.

Several skyscrapers decorate Moscow, including Moscow University and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre with a lot of institutes, universities, libraries, museums. The city leads a vast cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, more than 40 drama and musical theatres, including the Bolshoi Theatre, the Art Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the Vakhtangov Theatre.

Moscovites are proud of their museums: the Tretya-kov Gallery, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and many literary museums. Crowds of people visit Tretyakov Gallery admiring beautiful pictures of Russian painters. There are a lot of stadiums, swimming pools, courts and sport grounds in Moscow.

There are a lot of big plants and factories in Moscow that produce cars, lorries, home electrical appliances and so on.

Moscow Metro is considered to be one of the best and the most beautiful in the world.
WORDS

capital — столица

prince —князь

bank — берег

monument — памятник

outstanding — выдающийся

architect — архитектор

cathedral — co6op

masterpiece — шедевр

ensemble — ансамбль

palace — дворец

fortress — крепость

Bell tower —колокольня

dome — купол

skyscraper — небоскреб

Ministry of Foreign Affairs — министерство внутренних дел

scientific — научный

vast — обширный

QUESTIONS

1. When was Moscow founded?

2. Who founded Moscow?

3. What is Moscow famous for?

4. What are the places of interest in Moscow?

5. What are the world-famous theatres of Moscow?

6. What are the most famous museums of Moscow?

7. What do the plants and factories of Moscow produce?

8. What stadiums do you know in Moscow?

9. What can you say about Moscow Metro?

Great Britain

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland. The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244000 square kilometres. The population is over 56 million. The capital of the United Kingdom is London.

The surface of the United Kingdom varies greatly. The northern and the western parts of the country are mountainous and are called the Highlands. All the rest is a vast plain which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The rivers are not very long. The most important of them are the Severn and the Thames. There are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous part of the country.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain. It is mild the whole year round. Winters are not cold and summers are not hot.

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of iron and steel products, machinery and electronics, chemicals and textile. One of the chief industries is shipbuilding.

Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The most famous educational centres are Oxford and Cambridge universities. They are considered to be the intellectual centres of Europe. The education is not free, it is very expensive.

The United Kingdom is a monarchy and the Queen is the head of the state. But in practice it is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers : the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour party, the Conservative party and the Liberal party. The Conservative party is the ruling party nowadays.

WORDS

to be situated — быть расположенным

Isles — острова

surface — поверхность

vary — меняться, разниться

high — высокий

low — низкий

land — земля, страна

plain — равнина

vast — огромный

lake — озеро

shipbuilding — кораблестроение

climate — климат

mild — мягкий

industry — промышленность

occupy — занимать

population — население

develop — развивать

to produce — производить

to export — экспортировать

chemical — химический

textile — текстиль

government — правительство

chamber — палата

ruling — правящий

QUESTIONS

1. What is the official name of Great Britain?

2. Where is it situated?

3. What parts does it consist of?

4. What is the territory and the population of Great Britain?

5. What city is the capital of Great Britain?

6. What is the surface of the country?

7. Are there any big rivers and lakes in Great Britain?

8. What is the climate on the British Isles like?

9. Is Great Britain a highly developed industrial country?

10. What goods does the British industry produce?

11. Are there any big educational establishments in Great Britain?

12. Is Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy?

13. What is the name of the Queen of Great Britain?

14. How many chambers does the British Parliament consist of? What are they?

15. What are the main political parties in Great Britain?
London

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.

London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old. It has more than 20 centuries old history. Traditionally it is divided into several parts, the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End, They are very different from each other.

The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are concentrated here, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live in the City but over a million come to work here. Two masterpieces are situated within the City: St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London. St. Paul's Cathedral was built in the 17th century by Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was built in the 15th century. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it's a museum.

Westminster is the aristocratic official part of London. It includes Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives and the Houses of Parliament along the north bank of the Thames.

The clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell known as «Big Ben».

Westminster Abbey is the place where the coronation of nearly all kings and queens has taken place. Many of them are buried here as well as some other famous people of the country

The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are situated there. English aristocracy lives in this region. There are many various shops in it which attract customers from different countries of the world.

Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London, it was named in the memory of Admiral Nelsons victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square. Opposite the Nelson monument is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. They contain the finest art collections of the world. The British Museum is famous for its rich library (about 7.000.000 books)

The East End is an industrial district of London. There are many factories there. The region is densely populated by working class families, those people who have built the palaces of the West End.
WORDS

capital — столица

centre — центр

region — район

street — улица

district — район

palace — дворец

royal — королевский

fortress — крепость

cathedral — собор

hotel — гостиница

park — парк

memory — память

museum — музей

official — официальный

gallery — галерея

masterpiece — шедевр

art — искусство

collection — коллекция

library — библиотека

to attract — привлекать

to contain — содержать

to occupy — занимать

densely — плотно

the Bank of England — Английский банк

the Stock Exchange — Лондонская фондовая биржа

the Old Bailey — Центральный уголовный суд, находящийся в Олд-Бейли.

QUESTIONS

1. What is the capital of Great Britain?

2. What is London's population?

3. Is London a big city?

4. What river does London stand on?

5. Into what parts is London divided?

6. Why is the City called the business centre of London?

7. What places of interest does Westminster include?

8. Who is buried in Westminster Abbey?

9. What is the West End famous for?

The United States of America

The United States of America lies in the central part of the North American Continent between the two oceans: the Atlantic ocean in the East and the Pacific Ocean in the West.

Canada in the North and Mexico in the South are the only countries that have borders with the USA.

The USA consists of three separate parts. They are the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska and the main part. There are fifty states in the USA. They are very different in size, population and economic development. The smallest state is Rhode Island and the biggest is Texas. The total area of the USA is about 9 million square kilometres. The population is about 230 million people.

The USA is a big country and the climate conditions are very different in different places.

There are many big cities in the United States: New York, Philadelphia, Houston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles are the biggest of them.

The USA economically is the most powerful country in the world.

The USA is a parliamentary republic. The government has three branches: the Congress, the President and the Supreme Court.

There are two political parties in the United States: the Democratic Party, their symbol is a donkey, and the Republican Party, their symbol is an elephant. The president is elected for a 4-year term and not more than two times.

The Congress has two houses; the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country.
WORDS

borders — границы

separate — отдельные

climate conditions — климатические условия

parliamentary republic — парламантская республика

branches — ветви

donkey — осел

term — срок

House of representatives — палата представителей

Supreme Court — Верховный суд

QUESTIONS

1. What is the size of the United States?

2. What is the smallest state in the United States?

3. What is the largest state in the USA?

4. What are the biggest cities of the Unites States?

5. What are the three branches of US government?

6. What is the political system of United States?

Washington D.C.

Washington, the capital of the United States is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which does not belong to any one state but to all the States. The district is named in honour of Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of America. It is very interesting that Americans never say simply «Washington». They always add «D.C.» as the indication of the location. It is important because there are many towns with the same name all over the country and even one large state in far north-west.

Washington was founded in 1791 as the capital of the United States of America. Washington is quite a new city. The population of the city is nearly one million people. It is not a very large city, but it is very important as the capital of the USA. There is a law in Washington against building structures higher than the Capitol.

Washington has many historical places. The largest and tallest building in Washington is the Capitol, where the Congress meets. It is a very beautiful building with white marble columns. Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress. It holds five million books.

The White House, the residence of the president is the oldest public structure in the capital and one of the most beautiful. It was built in 1799. It is a two-storeyed white building. Not far from the Capitol is the Washington monument, which looks like a very big pencil. It rises 160 metres and it is empty inside. A special lift brings visitors to the top in 70 seconds, from where they can enjoy the view of the city.

The Jefferson Memorial was built in memory of the third President of the USA Thomas Jefferson, who was also the author of the Declaration of Independence. The Memorial is surrounded by cherry trees.

The Lincoln Memorial is devoted to the memory of the sixteenth President of the USA, the author of the Emancipation Proclamation, which gave freedom to Negro slaves in America.

WORDS

District of Columbia — округ Колумбия

piece of land — участок земли

nearly — около, приблизительно

marble — мраморный

two storied — двухэтажный

Declaration of Independence — декларация независимости

QUESTIONS

1. When was Washington founded?

2. Where is Washington situated?

3. What state does the District of Columbia belong to?

4. What are the most important places of interest in Washington?

5. What is the nickname of the Washington monument?

6. What is the population of Washington?

7. Are there any specific laws about building of the structures in Washington, D.C.?

8. Where does the President of the USA live?

9. Who works in the Capitol?

10. What is the cultural and financial capital of the USA?

Рабочая программа по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальности ЭУП.

2 курс

Семестр III (зачет)

Структура и содержание дисциплины
1. Выполнить контрольное задание №3 (вариант соответствует последней цифре зачётной книжки) по методичке кафедры ВИСТех.

Оформление работы должно соответствовать,установленным требованиям. Работа выполняется в отдельной тетради, сдаётся в деканат в строго установленные сроки. Во время зачёта проверяется на сколько успешно усвоен материал, вошедший в контрольную работу.

Для выполнения контрольной работы рекомендуется грамматический справочник учебника Л.Н. Андриановой .

^ 2. Сделать устное сообщение по темам:

1) Бухгалтерия

2) Учёт на предприятиях

3. Читать и переводить тексты по специальности, Л.М. Фёдорова, Н.Н. Немчина, С.Н. Никитаев «Английский язык для экономистов» М: Экзамен, 2002 (стр.64-66, 67-69, 70-72).

^ УСТНЫЕ ТЕМЫ
BOOKKEEPING.

The subject of bookkeeping is the movement of resources at any given economic unit. It reflects this movement in value (money) form, which makes it possible to compare different types of resources and summarize the relevant data

Bookkeeping is specific in that it groups data on resources of economic unit into two ways: on the one hand, according to their composition and distribution (fixed assets, raw and other materials, fuel, finished products, financial resources etc.) and on the other hand, according to the sources of their origin (basic fund, depreciation and other special funds, budget financing, bank credits, debts, etc.). In other words, the same resources are regarded from two points of view.

Bookkeeping is also specific in that it registers everything in money terms. This assessment is necessary not only for summing up all kinds of registered facts, but also for calculating cost-price payments, profitability, etc.

The movement of materials over a definite period and their state at a given moment is reflected in the bookkeeping balance-sheet. In this way the bookkeeping balance sheet characterizes the financial position of the enterprise, institution or organization concerned.
WORDS

bookkeeping бухгалтерия

economic unit экономическое (хозяйственное) подразделение

value стоимость

relevant data относящиеся к делу данные

composition состав

distribution распределение

fixed assets постоянный капитал

fuel топливо

according to согласно

source of origin источник происхождения

debts долги

to regard рассматривать

in money terms в денежном выражении

assessment оценка

to calculate рассчитывать

cost-price себестоимость

payments платежи

profitability прибыльность

balance sheet балансовый отчет

depreciation fund амортизационный фонд

^ TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH

Специфична в том, что …; в любом данном экономическом подразделении; что делает возможным; суммировать ... данные; с другой стороны …; источники их происхождения; бюджетное финансирование; другими словами; те же ресурсы рассматриваются с 2-х точек зрения; суммирование всех зарегистрированных фактов; расчет себестоимости; в данный момент; таким образом; оценка; отражает; движение ресурсов; группирует данные; амортизационный фонд; в денежном выражении; все виды зарегистрированных фактов; отражается в балансовом отчете.

QUESTIONS

1. What's the subject of bookkeeping?

2.1n what form does bookkeeping reflect the movement of resources?

3. What does money form make it possible?

4. Does bookkeeping have specific characteristics?

5. What do composition and distribution of resources include?

6. What do the sources of origin reflect?

7. Why is it necessary to assess everything in money terms?

8. What does the balance sheet reflect?

9. What does it characterize?

^ ACCOUNTANCY AT ENTERPRISES

The bookkeeping department of an enterprise is responsible for the accounting and control over all the economic, financial, and production operations of the enterprises. It organizes the paying out of wages to the personnel. The bookkeeping department draws up monthly, quarterly and annual reports on how well the enterprise functions and also issues monthly, quarterly and annual balance sheet.

This is done by means of initial and subsequent checks. The initial cheek is made by the chief bookkeeper when he signs all the contracts concluded by the enterprise. Subsequent control includes the data of the amount of work done, the amount of money spent out on materials for production, amount of wages paid, transport expenditures as compared to the fixed norms.

There is a unified accounting system - the journal-order system of accounting. The implementation of this system eased the work of the bookkeepers and raized the standard of accountancy work.

Many enterprises have at their disposal accounting centres, which carry out various kinds of accountancy: calculate wages, track the movement of materials keeping a record of the work done on building machines and mechanisms, clearing contracts between suppliers and buyers, issuing accounts to buyers and contractors. The centres have typing accounting machines, perforating and sorting machines, computing and adding machines for invoicing.
Words

to be responsible for быть ответственным, обязанным

за что - либо

draw составлять (отчет), оформлять (документы)

annual ежегодный

by means of при помощи, посредством

initial первоначальный

subsequent последующий

to sign подписывать

to conclude contracts заключать контракт

to include включать

expenditures расходы

as compared to по сравнению с …

unified accounting system единая расчетная система

amount of величина, количество, объем (работы)

to track следить

keep a record записывать, фиксировать

to clear contracts вести безналичные расчеты

supplier поставщик

contractor подрядчик

invoice накладная

to have at the disposal иметь в распоряжении
^ TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH

Отвечает за учет и за контроль; выплата зарплаты служащим; составляет ежемесячные квартальные и годовые отчеты, а также балансовый отчет; последующий контроль включает данные об объеме выполненных работ; транспортные расходы; по сравнению с установленной нормой; внедрение этой системы; начисляет зарплату; осуществляют безналичные расчеты между поставщиками и покупателями; облегчила работу бухгалтеров; единая расчетная система; сумма денег, потраченная на материалы; подписывает контракты; повысили уровень бухгалтерской работы; внедрение этой системы; объем выполненной работы.

QUESTIONS

1. What is the bookkeeping department responsible?

2. What does it organize?

3. Does the bookkeeping department draw up monthly, quarterly, annual reports?

4. What kinds of reports docs it issue?

5. What is the initial check?

6. What does the subsequent check include?

7. What system of accountancy eased the work of bookkeepers?

8. What accountancy do the accounting centres carry out?

9. What machines do they have at their disposal?

^ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ И ПЕРЕВОДА
CORPORATION

A corporation is a business organization authorized by the state to conduct business and is a separate legal entity from its owners. It is the dominant form of American business because it makes it possible to gather large amounts of capital together.

Before a corporation may do business, it must apply for and receive a charter from the state. The state must approve the articles of incorporation, which describe the basic purpose and structure of the proposed corporation.

The stockholders usually meet once a year to elect directors and to carry on other important business. Each share of stock entitles its owner to one vote. A stock holder who cannot attend the meeting can legally authorize another to vote his or her shares by proxy.

Management of a corporation consists of the board of directors who decide corporate policy, and the officers, who carry on the daily operations. The board is elected by the stockholders, and the officers are appointed by the board.

Some specific duties of the board of directors are to declare dividends, authorize contracts, decide on executive salaries, and arrange major loans with banks. Management's main means of reporting the corporations financial position and results of operations is its annual report.

The corporation form of business has several advantages over the sole proprietorship and partnership. It is a separate legal entity and offers limited liability to the owners, ease of capital generation and ease of transfer of ownership. In addition, it allows centralized authority, responsibility and professional management.

The corporation form of business also has several disadvantages. It is subject to greater government regulation and double taxation. In addition, separation of ownership and control may allow management to make harmful decisions.

MARKETING

Marketing is the performance of business activities connected with the flow of goods and services from producers to consumers. Marketing includes the following operations: transporting, storing, pricing and selling goods. The most important thing in marketing is finding out who the customers are and what they want. Marketing is the process of having the right product at the right time in the right place, the process that brings mutual benefit to customers and vendors.

Transporting means carrying goods from the place of their production to the place of their selling.

Storing is necessary because the consumer desires to buy goods without waiting.

Pricing involves the art of determining what price is the best.

Selling involves helping consumers to discover their needs. Marketers should inform potential buyers of where goods cap be bought and how much they cost.

Marketing research is also very important. The following are steps in marketing research: defining the problem, collecting data, compiling data and analyzing the results, advertising.

Marketing operations are very expensive and one should consider the value added through marketing. Marketing becomes too costly only when cost exceeds the value it adds.

^ Рабочая программа по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальности ЭУП.

2 курс

Семестр IV (экзамен)

Структура и содержание дисциплины
1. Контрольная работа №4 (вариант соответствует последней цифре зачётной книжки) по методичке кафедры ВИСТех.

Оформление работы должно соответствовать, установленным требованиям. Работа выполняется в отдельной тетради, сдаётся в деканат в строго установленные сроки. Во время зачёта проверяется на сколько успешно усвоен материал, вошедший в контрольную работу.

Для выполнения контрольной работы рекомендуется грамматический справочник учебника Л.Н. Андриановой .

2. Сделать сообщения по темам:

1) Природа и использование статистики. Повторить все изученные темы для сдачи экзамена.

2) Единоличное владение, партнёрство, корпорация (учебник Шляховой).

^ Повторить к экзамену ранее изученные темы:

1) Моя семья и друзья.

2) Мой рабочий день.

3) Наш Институт.

4) Лондон.

5) США.

6) Вашингтон.

7) Моя Родина.

8) Москва.

9) Бухгалтерия.

10). Учёт на предприятиях.

3. Тексты для чтения и перевода:

Л.М. Фёдорова, Н.Н. Немчина, С.Н. Никитаев «Английский язык для экономистов» М: Экзамен, 2002 (стр. 73-83).

4. Повторить грамматический материал контрольных работ №1, 2, 3 по методическим указаниям и контрольным заданиям по английскому языку, Волжский 2008 год. Учебник Л.Н.Андриановой Курс английского языка для вечерних и заочных технических вузов, Москва «Высшая школа» 2001 год.

^ УСТНЫЕ ТЕМЫ
NATURE AND USE OF STATISTICS

Statistics is a science of collecting, classifying and using numbers which express facts. It's a numerical data on which the science operates.

Statistics is used for describing and analyzing large groups or aggregates too large or complex to be intelligible by simple observation. Statistics is specially useful for making comparisons of similar aggregates observing the gradual changes taking place in them from time to time or place to place.

The principle tasks of statistics are: 1) to give correct views on facts; 2) to search for the causes of the changes; 3) to afford the material for estimates for the present and to make a possible forecast for the near future.

The various processes of statistics include: a) definition and analysis of the purpose put before the investigators; b) collection of raw data; c) the tabulation of data collected; d) the computational procedures; e) presentation of results through the graphic devices.

Economists are interested in statistical methods and statistical data because they are very important for correct understanding of economic problems.

WORDS

to express выражать

to operate работать, действовать

aggregates совокупности

complex сложный

to be intelligible быть понятным

similar схожий, подобный

gradual постепенный

correct views on ... правильный взгляд на … (точка зрения)

to search for искать

cause причина

to afford предоставить

estimate оценка

forecast прогноз

device средство, устройство

^ TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH

Время от времени; для проведения сравнений подобных совокупностей; слишком сложных для понимания; точка зрения, основанная на фактах; возможный прогноз на будущее; причины изменений; определение и анализ; табулирование собранных данных через графические средства; правильное понимание; предоставить материал; расчетные процедуры; сбор; классификация и использование чисел; особенно полезна; происходящие в них; главная задача; поиск причин изменений; предоставить материал для оценки; включают; заинтересованы.

QUESTIONS

1. What is statistics? Is it a numerical data on which the science operates?

2. What is statistics used for?

3. Where is statistics specially useful?

4. What are the principle tasks of statistics?

5. What do the various processes of statistics include?

6. Why are economists interested in statistical methods?

^ SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP, PARTNERSHIP, CORPORATION

1. There are three forms of organization of your business. These forms are the sole proprietorship, the partnership and the corporation. Which of these forms of organization you choose depends on such questions as the size of your business, whether you are the only owner of your business or you have partners.

2. Sole Proprietorship. A sole proprietorship is the simplest organizational form. There is one owner of the business, who usually takes the title of President. So he or she can make any decision without consulting anyone. Such kinds of business are in the service industries, such as repairing shops, restaurants, etc.

3.
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